## first-order logic

The language describing the truth of mathematical formulas. Formulas describe properties of terms and have a truth value. The following are atomic formulas:

``` True
False
p(t1,..tn)	where t1,..,tn are terms and p is a predicate.```

If F1, F2 and F3 are formulas and v is a variable then the following are compound formulas:

` F1 ^ F2	conjunction - true if both F1 and F2 are true,`

` F1 V F2	disjunction - true if either or both are true,`

``` F1 => F2	implication - true if F1 is false or F2 is
true, F1 is the antecedent, F2 is the
consequent (sometimes written with a thin
arrow),```

` F1 <= F2	true if F1 is true or F2 is false,`

``` F1 == F2	true if F1 and F2 are both true or both false
(normally written with a three line
equivalence symbol)```

``` ~F1		negation - true if f1 is false (normally
written as a dash '-' with a shorter vertical
line hanging from its right hand end).```

``` For all v . F	universal quantification - true if F is true
for all values of v (normally written with an
inverted A).```

``` Exists v . F	existential quantification - true if there
exists some value of v for which F is true.
(Normally written with a reversed E).```

The operators ^ V => <= == ~ are called connectives. "For all" and "Exists" are quantifiers whose scope is F. A term is a mathematical expression involving numbers, operators, functions and variables.

The "order" of a logic specifies what entities "For all" and "Exists" may quantify over. First-order logic can only quantify over sets of atomic propositions. (E.g. For all p . p => p). Second-order logic can quantify over functions on propositions, and higher-order logic can quantify over any type of entity. The sets over which quantifiers operate are usually implicit but can be deduced from well-formedness constraints.

In first-order logic quantifiers always range over ALL the elements of the domain of discourse. By contrast, second-order logic allows one to quantify over subsets.

["The Realm of First-Order Logic", Jon Barwise, Handbook of Mathematical Logic (Barwise, ed., North Holland, NYC, 1977)].