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A macro processor for Unix and GCOS which is more flexible than cpp. m4 copies its input to the output, expanding macros which can be either built-in or user-defined. m4 has built-in functions for including files, running Unix commands, doing integer arithmetic, manipulating text in various ways and recursing. m4 can be used either as a front-end to a compiler or as a stand-alone tool.

sendmail's configuration file (/etc/ is writen in m4 macros.

There is a GNU m4 v1.1 by Francois Pinard <> and a public domain version by Ozan Yigit <> and Richard A. O'Keefe <> (FTP from any 386BSD, NetBSD or FreeBSD archive). A Macintosh version is here.

See also m3, m5.

["The M4 Macro Processor", Kernighan & Ritchie, Jul 1977].

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